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This study investigated the effects of aerobic training and extract of Pistacia-atlantica (Baneh) as a plant with rich fatty acids, on tissue nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 and ghrelin gene expression, plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein, tissue/plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in female rats. 20 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to saline-control, saline-training, Baneh-control, and Baneh-training groups. The training groups were given a specific exercise on a motor-driven treadmill for 8 weeks. Nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 and ghrelin mRNA expressions were detected by Real-time PCR method. According to the results, the trained rats had higher nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in liver and visceral fat and liver estradiol concentration but their liver ghrelin mRNA expressions were lower compared to the control rats. Baneh-treated rats had lower nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in liver and visceral fat and plasma HDL-C concentration, but their plasma estradiol concentrations were significantly higher. Moreover, liver estradiol concentration and liver ghrelin mRNA expression were negatively correlated, whereas the correlation between plasma estradiol and HDL-C concentrations and nesfatin-1 mRNA expression in visceral fat was significantly positive. Generally, exercise and a high-fat diet induced changes in liver ghrelin, nesfatin-1 mRNA expression, liver estradiol level, and nesfatin-1 in visceral fat, nesfatin-1 expression in liver and visceral fat, liver glucose, plasma HDL-C, and estradiol.
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