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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation (4.5 mg⋅kg−1) on lower body resistance training (RT) performance preceded with and without an acute bout of endurance exercise. In a double-blinded crossover study, 10 moderately active males (20.6±2.1 yo) carried out six exercise sessions (2 x 1RM sessions; 2 x resistance sessions; 2 concurrent sessions). Resistance exercise sessions (CAF+RES and PLA+RES) were carried out with 4 maximum sets of leg press, leg extension and leg curl to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min inter-set and inter-session rest interval. Sessions consisted on 4 maximum sets to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min of rest interval between sets and exercises. Concurrent training sessions (CAF+CON and PLA+CON) were identical but were preceded by 30 min of continuous treadmill running at 75-85% HRmax. Physical performance showed a significant main effect for treatment (p < 0.0001), protocol (p < 0.02), exercises (p < 0.0001) and sets (p < 0.0001). Physical performance during RES was reduced after endurance exercise, indicating a cumulative effect of CON. Caffeine supplementation blunted this cumulative effect. We conclude that caffeine supplementation could be used to improve the RT performance when it is done immediately after an aerobic training.
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