Effects of Water and Land-based Sensorimotor Training Programs on Static Balance among University Students

  • Abdolhamid Daneshjoo Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
  • Ashril Yusof


This study examined the effect of sensorimotor training on static balance in two different environments; in water and on land. Thirty non-clinical university male students (aged 22±0.85 years) were divided randomly into three groups; water, land and control groups. The experimental groups performed their respective sensorimotor training programs for 6 weeks (3 times per week). The Stork Stand Balance Test was used to examine the static balance at pre- and post-time points. Significant main effect between group (P=0.001, η=0.78), and also time (P=0.001, η=0.72) were found. The post-hoc test showed significant differences between training in water compared to control group (P=0.001), while no difference between training on land compared to the control group (P=1.000). The water-based exercises significantly improved balance in the dominant leg with eyes opened (EO; test in water 10.4%, test on land 7.7%), and eyes closed (EC; test in water 8%, test on land 1.7%). Similarly in the non-dominant leg, the water group showed improvement in all conditions (EO; test in water by 10.7%, test on land 6.8%, EC; test in water by 8.8%, test on land 1.6%). However, the land-based exercise just showed improvement of 0.7% in the dominant leg with EO condition. It is concluded that the sensorimotor exercises in water can improve static balance more than on land. We suggest using water-based exercises instead of land-based for improving static balance in the collegiate population.
KEY WORDS water; land; sensorimotor; balance; Stork Stand Balance Test


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ashril Yusof

Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


1. Daneshjoo, A., Mokhtar, A.H., Rahnama, N., Yusof, A. The effects of comprehensive warm-up programs on proprioception, static and dynamic balance on male soccer players. PLoS ONE, 2012.7(12):p.e51568.
2. Caraffa, A., Cerulli, G., Projetti, M., Aisa, G., Rizzo, A. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. Knee Surg Sport Tra, 1996.4(1):p.19-21.
3. Garber, C.E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M.R., Franklin, B.A., Lamonte, M.J., Lee, I.-M., Nieman, D.C., Swain, D.P. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2011.43(7):p.1334-59.
4. Hrysomallis, C. Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Med, 2011.41(3):p.221-32.
5. Hrysomallis, C. Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Med, 2007.37(6):p.547-56.
6. Gribble, P.A., Hertel, J. Considerations for normalizing measures of the star excursion balance test. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci, 2003.7(2):p.89-100.
7. Thein, J.M., Brody, L.T. Aquatic-based rehabilitation and training for the elite athlete. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther, 1998.27(1):p.32-41.
8. Heithold, K., Glass, S.C. Variations in heart rate and perception of effort during land and water aerobics in older women. J Exer Physiol, 2002.5(4):p.22-8.
9. Eckelison, J., Anderson, T. Physiological response to water aerobics. J Sport Med Phys Fitness, 1992.32(3):p.255-61.
10. Nemčić, T., Budišin, V., Vrabec-Matković, D., Grazio, S. Comparison of the effects of land-based and water-based therapeutic exercises on the range of motion and physical disability in patients with chronic low-back pain: single-blinded randomized study. Acta Clinica Croatica, 2013.52(3):p.321-7.
11. Douris, P., Southard, V., Varga, C., Schauss, W., Gennaro, C., Reiss, A. The effect of land and aquatic exercise on balance scores in older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther, 2003.26(1):p.3-6.
12. Anderson, R., Fishback, E. Balance specific training in water and on land in older adults: a pliot study. Int J of Aquatic Res & Educ, 2010.4(3):p.300-11.
13. Suomi, R., Koceja, D.M. Postural sway characteristics in women with lower extremity arthritis before and after an aquatic exercise intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2000.81(6):p.780-5.
14. Simmons, V., Hansen, P.D. Effectiveness of water exercise on postural mobility in the well elderly: an experimental study on balance enhancement. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1996.51(5):p.M233-M8.
15. Lin, S.I., Woollacott, M.H. Postural muscle responses following changing balance threats in young, stable older, and unstable older adults. J Mot Behav, 2002.34(1):p.37-44.
16. Medell, J.L., Alexander, N.B. A clinical measure of maximal and rapid stepping in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000.55(8):p.M429-M33.
17. Arazi, H., Asadi, A. The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on strength, sprint, and balance in young basketball players. J Human Sport Exe, 2011.1(6):p.101-11.
18. Schaal, C.M., Collins, L., Ashley, C. Cardiorespiratory responses to underwater treadmill running versus land-based treadmill running. Int J of Aquatic Res & Educ, 2012.6(1):p.35-45.
19. Johnson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Practical Measurements for Evaluation in Physical Education. 4th ed: Edina, Minneapolis, MN: Burgess; 1986.
20. Suni, J.H., Oja, P., Laukkanen, R.T., Mülunpalo, S.I., Pasanen, M.E., Vuori, I.M., Vartiainen, T.M., Bös, K. Health-related fitness test battery for adults: aspects of reliability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1996.77(4):p.399-405.
21. Hatzitaki, V., Zlsi, V., Kollias, I., Kioumourtzoglou, E. Perceptual-motor contributions to static and dynamic balance control in children. J Mot Behav, 2002.34(2):p.161-70.
22. Holcomb, W.R., Rubley, M.D., Lee, H.J., Guadagnoli, M.A. Effect of hamstring-emphasized resistance training on hamstring: quadriceps strength ratios. J Strength Cond Res, 2007.21(1):p.41-7.
23. Pallant, J. SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. 3rd ed: Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin; 2007. 263-85 p.
24. Daneshjoo, A., Abu Osman, N.A., Sahebozamani, M., Yusof, A. Analysis of jumping-landing manoeuvers after different speed performances in soccer players, 2015. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0143323.
25. Vivas, J., Arias, P., Cudeiro, J. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2011.92(8):p.1202-10.
26. Gleim, G.W., Nicholas, J.A. Metabolic costs and heart rate responses to treadmill walking in water at different depths and temperatures. Am J Sports Med, 1989.17(2):p.248-52.
27. Hall, J., Macdonald, I.A., Maddison, P.J., O'hare, J.P. Cardiorespiratory responses to underwater treadmill walking in healthy females. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1998.77(3):p.278-84.
28. Anderson, R.L., Fishback, E. Balance specific training in water and on land in older adults: a pilot study. Int J Aquatic Res Educ, 2010.4(3):p.300-11.
29. Silvers, W.M., Rutledge, E.R., Dolny, D.G. Peak cardiorespiratory responses during aquatic and land treadmill exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007.39(6):p.969-97.
30. Miyoshi, T., Shirota, T., Yamamoto, S., Nakazawa, K., Akai, M. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water. Clin Biomech, 2005.20(2):p.194-201.
31. Tsukagoshi, T., Shima, Y., Nakase, J., Goshima, K., Takahashi, R., Aiba, T., Yoneda, Y., Moriyama, S., Kitaoka, K. Relationship between core strength and balance ability in high school female handball and basketball players. Br J Sports Med, 2011.45(4):p.378-.
32. Bento, P.C.B., Pereira, G., Ugrinowitsch, C., Rodacki, A.L.F. The effects of a water-based exercise program on strength and functionality of older adults. J Aging Phys Act, 2012.20(4):p.469-83.
33. Stones, M.J., Kozma, A. Balance and age in the sighted and blind. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1987.68(2):p.85-9.
34. Giagazoglou, P., Amiridis, I.G., Zafeiridis, A., Thimara, M., Kouvelioti, V., Kellis, E. Static balance control and lower limb strength in blind and sighted women. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2009.107(5):p.571-9.
35. Nashner, L.M., Shupert, C.L., Horak, F.B., Black, F.O. Organization of posture controls: an analysis of sensory and mechanical constraints. Prog Brain Res, 1989.80:p.411-8.
36. Nougier, V., Bard, C., Fleury, M., Teasdale, N. Contribution of central and peripheral vision to the regulation of stance. Gait Posture, 1997.5(1):p.34-41.
How to Cite
Daneshjoo, A., & Yusof, A. (2016). Effects of Water and Land-based Sensorimotor Training Programs on Static Balance among University Students. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 5(2), 11-19. Retrieved from http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/48
Applied Exercise Physiology