Effects of Water and Land-based Sensorimotor Training Programs on Static Balance among University Students

  • Abdolhamid Daneshjoo Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
  • Ashril Yusof


This study examined the effect of sensorimotor training on static balance in two different environments; in water and on land. Thirty non-clinical university male students (aged 22±0.85 years) were divided randomly into three groups; water, land and control groups. The experimental groups performed their respective sensorimotor training programs for 6 weeks (3 times per week). The Stork Stand Balance Test was used to examine the static balance at pre- and post-time points. Significant main effect between group (P=0.001, η=0.78), and also time (P=0.001, η=0.72) were found. The post-hoc test showed significant differences between training in water compared to control group (P=0.001), while no difference between training on land compared to the control group (P=1.000). The water-based exercises significantly improved balance in the dominant leg with eyes opened (EO; test in water 10.4%, test on land 7.7%), and eyes closed (EC; test in water 8%, test on land 1.7%). Similarly in the non-dominant leg, the water group showed improvement in all conditions (EO; test in water by 10.7%, test on land 6.8%, EC; test in water by 8.8%, test on land 1.6%). However, the land-based exercise just showed improvement of 0.7% in the dominant leg with EO condition. It is concluded that the sensorimotor exercises in water can improve static balance more than on land. We suggest using water-based exercises instead of land-based for improving static balance in the collegiate population.
KEY WORDS water; land; sensorimotor; balance; Stork Stand Balance Test


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Author Biography

Ashril Yusof

Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


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How to Cite
Daneshjoo, A., & Yusof, A. (2016). Effects of Water and Land-based Sensorimotor Training Programs on Static Balance among University Students. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 5(2), 11-19. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22631/ijaep.v5i2.48
Applied Exercise Physiology