Comparative Structural and functional changes in the heart and aorta of retire active and non- active endurance and bodybuilder athletes
This study compared the Structural and functional changes in the heart and aorta of former national endurance and bodybuilder athletes.
Ten former endurance athletes (EA) and 10 former bodybuilder athletes (BA) who are still active with a mean age of 52.55.50 and 49.16.31 respectively, and7 former endurance inactive athletes (EI) and 7 former bodybuilder inactive athletes (BI) who have quitted training since 4 years ago and are inactive now with a mean age of.53.286.65 and 51.859.09 respectively.
Â There were no significant differences in left ventricular volume (LVV), ejection fraction (EF), wall thickness between two ventricles, left ventricular (LV) mass index, systolic volume (SV) and diameter of the ascending aorta between the four groups. But there were significant differences in LV posterior wall thickness between BA (0.980.17) and EA (0.80 0.13) (p=0.03). Also there were significant difference between the aortic artery wall elasticity of BA (0.020.012) compared with EI (0.0220.0031) (p=0.02) and BI (0.0220.003) (p=0.03).
We concluded that the BA had a greater thickness of LV posterior wall than EI and also they had a significant difference in aortic wall elasticity than BI and EI. This may be due to the Valsalva maneuver or differences in breathing of bodybuilder. We also found that the structure changes of heart in spite of detraining remain for years.
Keywords: former endurance athletes, former bodybuilder athletes, Aortic elasticity, cardiac structure and function
2. Woolston, Chris. "Ills & Conditions – Athletic Heart Syndrome". CVS Caremark Health Information, 17 January 2007. http:/healthresources.com/topic/ahs.
3. Darling EA. The effects of training: a study of the Harvard University crews. Boston Med Surg J, 1899.161:p. 229–233.Google Scholar.
4. White PD. The pulse after a marathon race. JAMA, 1918.71: p. 1047–1048.Cross Ref Google Scholar.
5. White PD . Bradycardia in athletes, especially long distance runners. JAMA, 1942.120:642.
Cross Ref Google Scholar
6. Matthias W, Christian S. The athlete’s heart: different training responses, gender and ethnicity dependencies, Cardiovascular Medicine, 2012. 15(3):69–78.
7. Sharma S, Maron BJ, Whyte G, et al. Physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete’s heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2002.40:p. 1431–6. [PubMed].
8. Arstila M, Koivikko A . Electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic signs of left and right ventricular hypertrophy in endurance athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1966.6:p. 166–175. Medline Google Scholar.
9. Hanne-Paparo N, Wendkos MH, Brunner D, T wave abnormalities in the electrocardiograms of top-ranking athletes without demonstrable organic heart disease. Am Heart J, 1971.81:p.743–747.Cross Ref Medline Google Scholar.
10. Robert H. Fagard, Athlete’s heart or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Heart. Metab, 2012. 56:p. 14–19.
11. Rawlins,j. Bhan,a. Sharma, s. LV hypertrophy in athletes. European journal of echocardiography, 2009. 10:p. 350-356.
12. Prior DL, La Gerche A, The athlete’s heart. Heart, 2012 Jun.98 (12):p. 947-955.
13. D'Andrea A, Caso P, Severino S, Galderisi M, Sarubbi B, Limongelli G, Cice G, D'Andrea L, Scherillo M, Mininni N, Calabro R, Effects of different training protocols on left ventricular myocardial function in competitive athletes: a Doppler tissue imaging study. Ital Heart J, 2002.3: p. 34–40.
14. Scharhag J, Schneider G, Urhausen A, Rochette V, Kramann B, Kindermann W, Athlete's heart: right and left ventricular mass and function in male endurance athletes and untrained individuals determined by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2002. 40: p.1856–1863.
15. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Di Paolo FM, Biffi A, Quattrini FM, Pisicchio C, Roselli A, Caselli S, Culasso F, Prevalence and clinical significance of left atrial remodeling in competitive athletes, 2005. J Am Coll Cardiol 46: p. 690–696.
16. Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, van der Wall EE, The athlete's heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation, 2002. 101: p. 336–344.
17. Landry,F. Bouchard, C.&, Dumesnil, J, Cardiac Dimension Changes With Endurance Training. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1985. 254:p.77-80
18. duManoir GR, Haykowsky MJ, Syrotuik DG, Taylor DA, Bell GJ, The effect of high-intensity rowing and combined strength and endurance training on left ventricular systolic function and morphology. Int J Sports Med, 2007. 28: p. 488–494
19. Neilan TG, Yoerger DM, Douglas PS, Marshall JE, Halpern EF, Lawlor D, Picard MH, Wood MJ, Persistent and reversible cardiac dysfunction among amateur marathon runners. Eur Heart J, 2006. 27:p.1079–1084.
20. Milliken,M,C., Stray-Gundersen ,J.,Peshock,R,M.,katz,j.,&Mitchll,j,H, left Ventricular Mass As Determined By Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Male Endurance Athletes. American Journal of Cardiology, 1988.62: p. 301.305.
21. Legaz-Arrese A, Gonzalez-Carretero M, Lacambra-Blasco, Adaptation of left ventricular morphology to long-term training in sprint- and endurance-trained elite runners. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2006. 96: p.740–746.
22. Urhausen, A., Kindermann, W, One and Two Dimensional Echocardiography in Body Builders and Endurance Trained Subjects. International Journal of sports Medicine.1989. 10: p.139-144.
23. Makan, j. Sharma, s. firoozi,s.whyte,g. Jackson,p,g.makenna,w,j, physiological upper limits of ventricular cavity size in highly trained adolescent athletes.heart,2005.91: p. 495-499.
24. Aron,L,B.francis,W,R.weiner,J. Elinoff,F,T.,Arthur,B.Michael,H,P. Adolph,M,H. Malissa,J,W,training-specific change in cardiac structure and function:a prospective and longitudinal assessment of competitive athletes. J Appl physiol.2007.104: p. 1121-1128.
25. Zoncu S, Pelliccia A, Mercuro G, Assessment of regional systolic and diastolic wall motion velocities in highly trained athletes by pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 2002. 15: p. 900–905.
26. Cardim N, Oliveira AG, Longo S, Ferreira T, Pereira A, Reis RP, Correia JM, Doppler tissue imaging: regional myocardial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in athlete's heart. J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 2003. 16: p. 223–232.
27. D'Andrea A, Caso P, Sarubbi B, Limongelli G, Liccardo B, Cice G, D'Andrea L, Scherillo M, Cotrufo M, Calabro R, Right ventricular myocardial adaptation to different training protocols in top-level athletes. Echocardiography, 2003. 20: p.329–336.
28. Haykowsky MJ, Teo KK, Quinney AH, Humen DP, Taylor DA, Effects of long term resistance training on left ventricular morphology. Can J Cardiol. 2000. 16: p. 35–38.
29. Babaee Bigi MA, Aslani A, Aortic root size and prevalence of aortic regurgitation in elite strength trained athletes. Am J Cardiol, 2007. 100: p.528–530.
30. D'Andrea A, Limongelli G, Caso P, Sarubbi B, Della Pietra A, Brancaccio P, Cice G, Scherillo M, Limongelli F, Calabro R, Association between left ventricular structure and cardiac performance during effort in two morphological forms of athlete's heart. Int J Cardiol, 2002. 86: p. 177–184.
31. Otsuki T, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, Saito Y, Tanimura Y, Ajisaka R, Miyauchi T, Relationship between arterial stiffness and athletic training programs in young adult men. Am J Hypertens. 2007. 20: p. 967–973.
32. Sharma S, Maron BJ, Whyte G, Firoozi S, Elliott PM, McKenna WJ, Physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete's heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2002. 40: p. 1431–1436.
33. Lalande S, Baldi JC, Left ventricular mass in elite Olympic weight lifters. Am J Cardiol, 2007. 100: p. 1177–1180.
34. Nottin, G., Doucende, I., Schuster-Beck,M,Dauzat & P,Obert, Alteration In LV Normal And Shear Strains Evaluated By2D-Strain EchocardiographyIn The Athele,s Heart. The Journal of Physiology, 2008.586. p. 4721-4733.
35. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, De Luca R, Di Paolo FM, Spataro A, Culasso F, Remodeling of LV hypertrophy in elite athletes after long-term deconditioning. Circulation, 2002. 105:p. 944–949.
36. Rahimi1 E. Chahardah Cheric M, Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and their Relation to Hypertension in Adult Male Population of Fars. Pak J Med Res, 2012. 51(3): p. 97-100.