International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology (Int J Appl Exerc Physiol)</strong> is a professional peer reviewed&nbsp; journal devoted to original research in exercise and sport physiology. The journal is directed by the Editor-In-Chief with supporting editorial assistance via Associate Editors knowledgeable in the field of exercise and sport physiology.<strong> IJAEP </strong> is official journal of Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association. It is founded for the purpose of disseminating exercise physiology research and, thus to serve specifically the professional needs of the exercise physiologist. The Editors welcome both empirical and theoretical articles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Scope &amp; Subjects Covered :</strong><br>Strength and Conditioning<br>Exercise Physiology<br>Physical Adaptation<br>Weight Loss<br>Sport Supplement<br>Kinesiology<br>Technology in Sports<br>Sport Science<br>Performance Analysis</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><a href=""> Indexed at:</a></strong>&nbsp;Web of Science Core Collection (Emerging Sources Citation Index) by Thomson Reuters, ProQuest&amp; ...</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<img src="" alt=""></p> Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association en-US International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology 2322-3537 Effects of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction on muscle size and strength of professional soccer players with muscle imbalance <p><sup>The purposes of this study were to determine whether low intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR) could affect the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength ratio (Hcon:Qcon) of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance (Study 1), and whether hamstrings strength response observed after LI-BFR is associated with muscle hypertrophy (Study 2). In the Study 1, athletes were randomly divided into a training group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5). In the Study 2, all athletes (n = 11) have performed the training programme. The athletes participated in a 6-week (twice a week) supervised training programme (unilateral knee flexion at 30% 1RM) consisting of 12 training sessions. Peak concentric torque of knee flexors (+8%; P &lt; 0.001) and Hcon:Qcon (+9%; P &lt; 0.01) were significantly increased after LI-BFR. Moreover, the cross sectional area (CSA) of the hamstrings was significantly increased (+10%; P &lt; 0.001) after LI-BFR. Thus, the addition of hamstrings strength training programme using LI-BFR during preseason is able to enhance both Hcon:Qcon and hamstrings CSA of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance.</sup></p> Benedito Sergio Denadai Felipe Oliveira Sérgio Camarda Leandro Ribeiro Camila Coelho Greco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 6 4 7 13 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.194 Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming? <p><sup>Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge </sup><sup>(33.26 % ± SD 12.59)</sup><sup> and meagre hydration knowledge </sup><sup>(28.61 % ± SD 28.59)</sup><sup>. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold </sup><sup>(1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008)</sup><sup>. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg </sup><sup>±</sup> <sup>SD</sup><sup> 0.31). Sweat loss (2.67 g/min </sup><sup>±</sup> <sup>SD</sup><sup> 3.23) and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % </sup><sup>±</sup><sup> SD 0.59) were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.</sup></p> Cesare Altavilla Maria Soledad Prats Moya Pablo Caballero Pérez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 6 4 37 45 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.220 The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise <p><strong><sup>Introduction and objectives: </sup></strong><sup>The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. <strong>Methods: </strong>The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lactate levels were measured at baseline (PRE) at immediately after the HIIT (POST), at the 1 minutes after HIIT (1min), at the 5 minutes after HIIT (5min), and at the 10 minutes after HIIT (10min). On the rest days, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum creatine kinase (CK)&nbsp; measurements were done to determine the muscle damage. <strong>Results: </strong>The in-group comparisons for lactate levels showed no significant difference (p&gt;0,01). The level of lactate on the 10min was found to be significantly lower than the 5min in the core exercise group (p&lt;0,01). Similarly in the electrostimulation group, 10m lactate levels are significantly lower than 5min (p&lt;0,01). There were no statistically significant differences in the heart rate measurements (p&lt;0,01). The results showed no statistically significant difference between the groups although the averages of LDH and CK showed variations (p&gt;0,01). These results show that the lactate level reaches to the maximum level after HIIT, and the level of lactate decreases between the 5th and the 10th minutes. </sup><strong><sup>Discussion and conclusion: </sup></strong><sup>These indicate that the active recovery methods are more effective than the passive. It was found that the active recovery methods accelerate the lactate removal from the metabolism and provide effective recovery in short time during the recovery period after exercise.</sup></p> Ahmet Mor Gökhan İpekoğlu Cansel Arslanoglu Kursat Acar Erkal Arslanoglu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-23 2017-12-23 6 4 46 53 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.178 The spatial orientation of the players with different type of nervous system <p><sup>The purpose of this article is to obtain and summarize the data obtained in the new study, namely the change in performance of the spatial orientation of the players 12-13 years old with different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The leading methods to research this problem are ascertaining and formative pedagogical experiment, theoretical analysis and summarizing of methodological literature and methods of mathematical statistics. For 8 months of the experiment there was a significant increase in the ability to navigate in space, in the experimental group, which was engaged in by a special methodic. Players with a strong nervous system indicator has increased from 16.2 of±0.5 to 14.9±0.2 s (p&lt;0.05), and players with a weak nervous system – from 15.8±0.4 to 14.8±0.5 (p&lt;0.05). In the control group also saw the positive, but not significant changes (p&gt; 0.05). Conclusion - the article can be useful for coaches, who are preparing not only young players, but also applied in other sports. The urgency is due to the search of improvement of training process of young players who will improve the spatial orientation of children and will improve their results in football.</sup></p> Georgiy Polevoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 6 4 1 6 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.175 INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Underweight (UW) individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT) plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009) stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT) on the muscular hypertrophy and selected health related fitness variables among the underweight males.&nbsp; <strong>Method: </strong>A group of (N=40) subjects was selected randomly to participate in this study.&nbsp; The age of the participants was in the range of 18-24 years, (RT) program was employed for 12 weeks, two days in a week, 45 minutes of training per session. The subjects were segregated into two groups namely Group-A (n=20, experimental group), Group –B (n=20 control group). The (RT) was employed on experimental group. Control group was not given any above mentioned special training program. The tests (pre and post) considered for this study was health related fitness variables are as follows; body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, Flexibility and cardio-vascular endurance. And test for muscular hypertrophy i.e. (neck, shoulders, chest, arms,&nbsp; waist, hips, thigh and calf; To compare the mean differences from pre to post test, mean, standard deviation, and t-test was computed by the help of statistica software.&nbsp; <strong>Results &amp; Discussion: </strong>12 weeks of training protocol had revealed significant performance from pre to posttest among the subjects with regard to the selected fitness variables and presented by percentages i.e. BMI (4.45%), bench press (35.12%), sit-ups test (22.34%), sit &amp; reach test (26.83%), and 12 min run &amp; walk test (26.94%). Furthermore the muscular hypertrophy was enhance among the underweight students i.e. Neck (2.61%), shoulder (2.95%), chest (6.75%), arms (10.43%), waist (8.23%), thighs (11.15%), calves (4.08%) ; and lastly hip circumference by (3.33%) had shown reduction in size from pre to post test<strong>.&nbsp; Conclusion</strong>:&nbsp; It is concluded that the influence of training had shown significant performance among the (UW) students with regard to the selected fitness test i.e. (BMI), bench press, sit-ups test, sit &amp; reach test and 12 min run &amp; walk test.&nbsp; Furthermore the selected muscular hypertrophy of the (UW) students i.e. Neck, shoulder, chest, arms, waist, thighs, calves circumference had shown increased in the muscular size and hip circumference had shown reduction in size from pre to post test.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kaukab Azeem Erdogan Tabur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 6 4 14 25 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.214 The Examination and Comparison of Recreational Sports Centers With Regard to Quality of Service <p>The goal of this study is to analyses private sports centers offering recreational activities in the cities of Izmir and Manisa (Turkey) according to the opinions of voluntary members and compare them based on several variables. The "Service Quality Assessment Scale" developed by Lam and adapted to Turkish with a validity and reliability procedure was used as a data collection tool in the current study. The study was carried out with 527 people including 177 women and 350 men. In the analyses, descriptive statistics were used in the distribution of the demographic data and service quality satisfaction scores of the participants, and the independent t-test and one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) were utilized to determine if the demographic data led to any significant statistical difference in the service quality satisfaction scores. Significance level was taken as p&lt;0.05 and confidence interval was accepted as 95%. According to the findings of the study, the average difference values of the participants (service quality satisfaction scores) were determined to be in the negative direction in all the related dimensions (perceived service quality-expected service quality). It was found that the service quality satisfaction scores of the participants from Manisa in all the dimensions except for the personnel dimension were lower than the scores of the participants from Izmir. Compared with male participants, the personnel satisfaction scores of female participants were found to be lower. Those whose monthly income was 1000 TL or lower perceived sports center services of changing rooms and facilities to be insufficient compared with those whose monthly income was between 1001 and 2000 TL or between 2001 and 4000 TL.</p> Mehmet Ali öztürk Gökdemir K Tekin Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 6 4 26 36 10.22631/ijaep.v6i4.195