International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology (Int J Appl Exerc Physiol)</strong> is a professional peer reviewed&nbsp; journal devoted to original research in exercise and sport physiology. The journal is directed by the Editor-In-Chief with supporting editorial assistance via Associate Editors knowledgeable in the field of exercise and sport physiology.<strong> IJAEP </strong> is official journal of Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association. It is founded for the purpose of disseminating exercise physiology research and, thus to serve specifically the professional needs of the exercise physiologist. The Editors welcome both empirical and theoretical articles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Scope &amp; Subjects Covered :</strong><br>Strength and Conditioning<br>Exercise Physiology<br>Physical Adaptation<br>Weight Loss<br>Sport Supplement<br>Kinesiology<br>Technology in Sports<br>Sport Science<br>Performance Analysis</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><a href=""> Indexed at:</a></strong>&nbsp;Web of Science Core Collection (Emerging Sources Citation Index) by Thomson Reuters, ProQuest&amp; ...</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<img src="" alt=""></p> Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association en-US International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology 2322-3537 A comparative study to identify a suitable model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs <p><em></em>Today the government ownership of the professional football clubs is absolutely illogical view point. Most of sports clubs are conducted by private sector using different models of ownership all over the world. In Iran, government credits benefit was main reason that the professional sport was firstly developed by government firms and organizations. Therefore, the sports team ownership is without the professionalization standards. The present comparative study was to examine the different football club ownership structures of the top leagues and the current condition of Iran football pro league ownership and then present a suitable ownership structure of Iran football clubs to leave behind the government club ownership. Among the initial 120 scientific texts, the thirty two cases including papers, books and reports were found relevant to this study. We studied the ownership prominence and several football club models of ownership focused on stock listing model of ownership, private investor model of ownership, supporter trust model of ownership and Japan partnership model of ownership; theoretical concepts, empirical studies, main findings, strengths and weaknesses were covered in analysis procedure. According to various models of ownership in leagues and the models’ productivity in football clubs, each model of ownership considering national environmental, economic, social conditions has strengths and weaknesses. So, we cannot present a definite model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs due to different micro-environments of Iran clubs. We need a big planning to provide a supporter-investor mixed model of ownership to Iranian clubs. Considering strengths and weaknesses in the models of ownership as well as the micro and macro environment of Iran football clubs, German model and Japan partnership model are offered as suitable ones to probable new model of ownership in Iran pro league clubs. Consequently, more studies are required to find a suitable model of ownership based on environmental conditions in Iran.&nbsp;</p> Saeed Amirnejad Ali Reza Elahi Hossein Akbari Yazdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-22 2018-01-22 7 1 30 47 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.255 Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes <p><sup>The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT) in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC), hypobaric control (HC), normobaric exercise (NE) and hypobaric exercise (HE) groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg) and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg) simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal&nbsp;heart&nbsp;rate&nbsp;reserve (HRRmax) interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline) and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P&lt;0.05). Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P&lt;0.05).it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress</sup>.</p> <p><sup>&nbsp;</sup></p> Karim - Azali Alamdari Jabbar Bashiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-12 2018-03-12 7 1 48 55 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.227 Comparison of the effect of rest interval between sets and set – repetition configuration during bouts of eccentric exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory markers <p><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>Various studies have demonstrated that different rest Intervals has a significant effect on hormonal, metabolic and cardiovascular responses. This factors can lead to different muscle damage responses. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 40 untrained subjects (25.4 ± 0.068 years, height 1.74 ± 0.97 cm and weight 30.8 ± 8.48 kg) in three sessions of eccentric resistance exercise with 24 hours rest between each session Participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups, A group:&nbsp; 5 sets of 10 repetition with the interset rest interval 1 minutes, B group: 10 sets of 5 repetition with the interset rest interval 3 minutes, C group: 10 sets of 5 repetition with the interset rest interval 3 minutes and D group: 5 sets of&nbsp; 10 repetition with the interset rest interval 3 minutes that performed 50 eccentric contractions with 85% of one repetition maximum. Each set includes 10 or 5 contractions that lower a person’ s weight in 3 s and at least 2 s to reach the next contraction without weights placed in full flexion Around 1- or 3-min rest was given between each set. The experimental protocol was repeated for three consecutive days. The range of motion, the arm circumference, soreness and Alpha necrosis tumor factor were measured immediately before , immediately after and 24 hours after training. <strong>Results:</strong> Variance analysis with repeated measure demonstrated, &nbsp;non-dominant arm circumference(P= 0.44), soreness (P= 0.76) and alpha necrosis tumor factor (P= 0.37) in different time points in 4 groups significantly increased and the range of motion (P= 0.44) decreased, but no significant difference in all dependent variables were found in 4 groups at different time points (P &lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mechanisms of muscular damage caused by consecutive eccentric activities is independent of manipulating resistance exercise components (rest and the number of set-repetition) and possibly related to the muscular pressure entering to the muscles.</p> Hossein Mohammadi Mohammad Esmaiel Afzalpour Seyed Hossein Abtahi Ivary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-14 2018-03-14 7 1 56 62 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.238 The effect of 12-weeks concurent training on the serum levels NGF, BDNF, and VDBP in women with multiple sclerosis <p>Recent studies suggest that patients with multiple sclerosis(MS) have low levels of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor(NGF), brain-derived neurothrophic factor(BDNF) and the vitamin D-binding protein(VDBP), and exercise training may affects these factors in people with MS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined exercise training programon the serum levels of neurotrophic factos in women with MS. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 24 volunteer MS patients(Expanded Disability Status Scale range of 1–5). Resting serum levels of BDNF, NGF, VDBP, body composition variables, and disability scale values were determined before and&nbsp; after the intervention. The intervention consisted of&nbsp; three sessions of combined training a week for 12 weeks(two sessions of aerobic and one session of resistance training, progressively). Aerobic training consisted of interval training with 4-13 repetition of aerobic activity at 40-55% of heart rate reserve; and resistance training consisted of 8-12 repetitions with 60-80% of 1RM for eight movements. The results showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage (p=0.003) and disability scale value(p=0.007) in the experimental group. no other significant changes was observed for other variables or in the control group. This study indicates that although the combined aerobic and resistance training in three non-consecutive days per week for 12 weeks has no effect on NGF, BDNF, and VDBP; however with positive effects on the body fat percentage and disability scale value can be for women with MS.</p> Mitra Khademosharie Vahid Tadibi Naser Behpoor Mohammad Reza Hamedinia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-23 2018-03-23 7 1 77 86 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.228 EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL, MOTOR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ATHLETES AND WRESTLERS IN THE AGE GROUP OF 12-14 YEARS OLD IN TERMS OF BRANCHING <p>The purpose of the study is to compare the physical, motor and physiological features of students in the age group of 12-14 years old who regularly practice in athletics and wrestling sports with non-sports students, and explore its impacts on the sports students' level of branching. The research group was selected among Keçiören Mecidiye Secondary School and Alaeddin Ozdenören Imam Hatip Secondary School students in Ankara. The research group consisted of 47 students; 15 students in the age group of 12-14 years old who are engaged in regular athletics training, 17 students in the same age group who are engaged in regular wrestling training and 15 volunteers in the same age group who do not do sports. Measurements included age, height, body weight, Agility (T-test), hand grip strength, standing jump, vertical jump, body fat percentage, flamingo balance, flexibility, 1 min shuttle, BMI, 30 m speed run, 1000 m run-walk tests. The analysis of the data was evaluated according to the results of the Levene test for homogeneity. If the result was homogeneous, ANOVA method, otherwise Kruskal Wallis comparison test was used. In variables whose averages differed as result of multiple comparisons, the TUKEY test was used to find which groups these differences stemmed from. The results of agility, right and left hand grip strength, flexibility, 1 min shuttle, Body Mass Index (BMI), 30 m speed, 1000 m run-walk tests were statistically significant. However, the results for height, weight, age, long jump, flamingo balance, body fat percentage, vertical jump tests were not statistically significant. When we look at the results, it is found that the best results for 1000 m run-walk, 30 m speed run, agility (T-test), height, long jump, vertical jump were recorded in the athletics group. It has been observed that the wrestler group has better results in body weight, body fat percentage, grasp strength, flamingo balance, 1 minute shuttle and flexibility parameters. The values of the control group were found to be lower than those who were engaged in athletics and wrestling as they did not exercise regularly. When the differences between the groups are evaluated, it can be said that there is a tendency towards branching in a branch in the age group of 12-14 years old.</p> Celal Bulğay Ebru Çetin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-26 2017-12-26 7 1 1 10 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.152 The association between Body Physique and Physical Fitness: a cross-sectional study among a tribal community of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India <p>Body physique and physical fitness are the key determinants of a healthy life. The type of work one performs has immense impact on the physique and fitness of an individual regardless of even socio-economic status. This study aims to understand the association of physical fitness with body physique among a tribal community of India. Data were collected on 200 individuals, both male and female in the age group of 18-40 years using random sampling technique. The males are mesomorph ectomorph (1.6 - 4.0 - 3.5), whereas, females are central (2.8 – 3.6 – 3.5). The physical fitness level of the studied population is excellent. With an increase in physical fitness among Warli males and females, there is an increase in mesomorphy component of somatotype, while the inverse is true for endomorphy and ectomorphy components. From this, it can be inferred that to be physically fit, muscular development is the most important.</p> Shivani Chandel Athoni Rhetso S. L. Malik Monika Kulshreshtha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 7 1 11 20 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.161 The performance analysis of Islamic republic of Iran broadcasting (IRIB) in comparison with foreign selected channels in the field of sports <p><strong><sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><sup>The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of Islamic republic of Iran broadcasting (IRIB) in comparison with foreign selected channels in the field of sports. The methodology of the present study is descriptive in terms of strategy and content analysis in terms of method. The statistical population of the study includes all channels that are involved in production of sport programs inside and outside of the country. Two non-sport channels and two sport channels that covered night and day sport events were selected as the samples of the study. The Tv3 channel and Sport Channel from Iran and ZDF and Ray Sport 1 channel from Germany have been selected as the samples for the test. The instrument used for data collection in this study was coded sheet used for analyzing the content of the programs broadcasting by these channels. Face and content validity of coded sheet confirmed by three experts and its reliability confirmed by agreement coefficient of Scott π (0/86). The results of the study showed that different TV channels in terms of content, function and coverage of sport programs are different based on functional roles. Therefore, broadcasting organization must develop comprehensive and codified programming for broadcasting sport programs and its coverage. </sup></p> Mostafa Moghadas Farzam Farzan Hamid Ghasemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-30 2017-12-30 7 1 21 29 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.241 Effects of 8-Week Thera-Band Training on Spike Speed, Jump Height and Speed of Upper Limb Performance of Young Female Volleyball Players <p><strong><sup>ABSTRACT: </sup></strong><strong><sup>Introduction and objectives</sup></strong><sup>: </sup><sup>Elastic resistance has been commonly used in the therapeutic and fitness setting. However, the effects of a strength training program using elastic resistance exercises to the explosive power and </sup><sup>spike </sup><sup>speed, which are very important elements for successful volleyball practice, has not been clearly demonstrated. </sup><sup>Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the effects of 8-week Thera-Band training protocols on the development of spike speed, counter movement jump (CMJ) height, peak power and speed of upper limb performance of young female volleyball players. <strong>Methods:</strong> The participants consists of 20 competitive female volleyball players who regularly train at the same team and aged 15-17 years (age 16.2 ± 0.7 years). </sup><sup>All the players were tested for </sup><sup>spike speed, CMJ height, peak power and speed of upper limb performances </sup><sup>before and after</sup><sup> 8-week training </sup><sup>program.</sup> <sup>The players were divided into Thera-Band Training Group (TTG; <em>n</em>=10) and Control Group (CG; <em>n</em>=10). Both groups continued technical and tactical volleyball training together 3 days (120 min.d.-1) a week. Additionally, TTG attended Thera-Band training program through 8-week, 2 days per week and 2 sessions (60 min.d.-1).</sup> <strong><sup>Results</sup></strong><sup>: The findings of the study showed significant change in CMJ height, peak power and spike speed at the end of 8-week. TTG significantly (<em>p </em>≤ .001) improved CMJ height, peak power and spike speed, whereas the CG showed significant changes only CMJ height and peak power (<em>p </em>≤ .05) at the end of 8-week. The effect of </sup><sup>resistance exercises </sup><sup>was significantly higher as compared to the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; .05). Results demonstrated that the TTG players showed greater improvements in CMJ height (<em>d</em> = 1.31, moderate effect size), and spiking speed (<em>d =</em> 2.93, large effect size) performance than CG. </sup><strong><sup>Conclusion</sup></strong><sup>: It can be concluded that</sup><sup> supervised&nbsp; Thera-Band training</sup> <sup>contributed development of the performance of spike speed mostly and CMJ height and peak power of lower extremities in young female volleyball players. Due to its effectiveness on muscular performance, the Thera-Band training model can be recommended to the coaches and players in additional to the regular technical training.</sup></p> Ani Agopyan Nurper Ozbar Seda Nur Ozdemir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 7 1 63 76 10.22631/ijaep.v7i1.218