International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology (Int J Appl Exerc Physiol)</strong> is a professional peer reviewed&nbsp; journal devoted to original research in exercise and sport physiology. The journal is directed by the Editor-In-Chief with supporting editorial assistance via Associate Editors knowledgeable in the field of exercise and sport physiology.<strong> IJAEP </strong> is official journal of Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association. It is founded for the purpose of disseminating exercise physiology research and, thus to serve specifically the professional needs of the exercise physiologist. The Editors welcome both empirical and theoretical articles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Scope &amp; Subjects Covered :</strong><br>Strength and Conditioning<br>Exercise Physiology<br>Physical Adaptation<br>Weight Loss<br>Sport Supplement<br>Kinesiology<br>Technology in Sports<br>Sport Science<br>Performance Analysis</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><a href="http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/Indexing"> Indexed at:</a></strong>&nbsp;Web of Science Core Collection (Emerging Sources Citation Index) by Thomson Reuters, ProQuest&amp; ...</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;<img src="http://www.ijaep.com/mainpage.gif" alt="http://www.ijaep.com/mainpage.gif"></p> Asian Exercise and Sport Science Association en-US International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology 2322-3537 Opponens pollicis silent period during a precision motor task with the isometric contraction of the ipsilateral knee extension. http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/271 <p><sup>Objectives: To clarify the excitability of the central nervous system function via a difference in the feedback method, we examined the alterations in the duration of the silent period recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle during a precision motor task. This task involved isometric knee extension using visual feedback and verbal conduction.</sup></p> <p><sup>Design: Cross-sectional study with an A-B-A task-order design. </sup></p> <p><sup>Methods: 12 healthy adults (7 males and 5 females; mean age: 23.7 ± 2.1 years) participated in this study. SP was recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle during a precision motor task involving with isometric contraction during ipsilateral knee extension with constant torque by two kinds of feedback. The precision motor task was carried out as follows; Subjects maintained knee extension torque at a constant strength using the BIODEX SYSTEM 3 with 60° of knee flexion. The knee extension torque was set at 25% of individual maximum effort. We monitored the torque using two methods. The first method used subjects’ own visual feedback with gazing at the BIODEX screen (Task A). The second task featured torque adjustment by the examiner’s verbal instruction. Subjects’ eyes were bandaged to eliminate visual feedback (Task B). Silent period was recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle while subjects maintained ipsilateral isometric knee extension during an A-B-A task order. As a stimulus condition, a constant current rectangular wave with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a duration of 0.2 ms, was added 16 times in the median nerve at the wrist with the intensity of supra-maximum, which maximal M wave was evoked. We compared the duration of silent period between tasks in each dominant and non-dominant side.</sup></p> <p><sup>Results: The duration of silent period on the dominant leg was 109.1 ± 5.2 ms (Task A), 105.2 ± 7.2 ms (Task B), and 107.6 ± 6.7 ms (Task A). And that on the non-dominant leg was 111.3 ± 6.1 ms (Task A), 105.9 ± 4.4 ms (Task B), and 109.3 ± 4.4 ms (Task A). There was no significant difference on the dominant leg side. However, during Task B on the non-dominant leg side, the duration of silent period was shortened (Tukey’s test, p = 0.01, 0.08).</sup></p> <p><sup>Conclusion: During less-skilled motor adjustment using the non-dominant leg, the motor control with verbal conduction and no visual feedback requires more afferent activation. In these cases, central nervous system function excitability associated with ipsilateral upper extremity increases, even if the task involves the lower extremity. </sup></p> Shinichi Daikuya Yumi Okayama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-08 2018-06-08 7 2 9 14 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.271 THE EFFECTS OF THE RESISTANCE TRAINING ON SERUM CORTISOL, IL-6, IL-8, AND TNF- α http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/225 <p><sup>Objective:</sup><sup> The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of resistance training on IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, blood hematocrit and cortisol levels. </sup></p> <p><sup>Materials and Methods:</sup><sup> Thirteen players from Manisa Celal Bayar University soccer team and 14 sedentary male students were used as the study subjects. The subjects, whose average age was 18-24 years old, were healthy and free of any cardiovascular diseases. Anthropometrics measurements and blood samples were obtained from all the subjects. Blood samples were obtained basal sample (before the exercise), immediately after the training program (post-exercise), and 2 hours after the training program (2h post-exercise). All subjects participated in the training program in which intensity prescribed individually in 10 different exercises; seated leg press, knee extension, knee flexion, chest press, chest flys, lat pull down, shoulder press, triceps extension, biceps curl and sit-ups. Three sets of intensity of the each exercise were arranged according to pyramidal system at 70-80 % of the each participant. The volume of resistance training was 50-60 minutes. </sup></p> <p><sup>Results:</sup><sup> Post exercise IL-6 (p= 0,05) and IL-8 (p= 0,04) concentration of athletes were statistically lower compared to that of sedentary group. Furthermore, serum cortisol concentrations were found to be decreased in both study groups in post exercise and 2h post exercise samples compared to basal values (p&lt;0,05). Post exercise IL-8 (p=0,04) and TNF-α (p=0,04) values of sedentary group increased significantly compared to values at 2h post exercise.</sup></p> <p><sup>Conclusion:</sup><sup> IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α responses to resistance training vary depending on the recruitment of different muscle fiber types by the trained individuals during the resistance training and the recovery of glycogen storage, which is found to be different from that of sedentary individuals.</sup></p> Yılmaz Öztürk Nurten DİNÇ Selda Bereket Yücel Fatma Taneli Cevval Ulman Hakan Tıkız ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-08 2018-06-08 7 2 15 25 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.225 Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/278 <p><sup>Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT), moderate (MIIT), low (LIIT), sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI) and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05). Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05). Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT) resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT), despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission</sup></p> Babak Ebadi Arsalan Damirchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-10 2018-06-10 7 2 46 55 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.278 Autogenous control of heart rate taking Deep Slow Breaths during exercise http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/279 <p><sup>We investigated whether heart rate can be controlled consciously. This study examined the effect of 20 minutes of cycling exercise while being conscious about energy conservation on the heart rate. 21 healthy college students (9 men, 12 women) participated three exercise bouts. Exercise bouts were examined under the following three conditions: (a) known condition (participants having information about the exercise duration); (b) unknown condition (participants having no information about the exercise duration) and; (c) conserving energy condition (participants having information about the exercise duration and being conscious about energy conservation). Heart rate in the unknown condition was lower than that in the known condition (p &lt; 0.05); further, it was lower in the conserving energy condition than in the known condition (p &lt; 0.01). In contrast, the tidal volume of the conserving energy condition was higher than that in the known condition (p &lt; 0.05). In addition, the respiratory rates in the unknown and conserving energy conditions were lower than that in the known condition (p &lt; 0.01). Energy expenditure during exercise was lowest in the conserving energy condition. These results show the possibility of autogenous control of heart rate by taking deep slow breaths consciously during exercise. </sup></p> Tsuyoshi Kageyama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-10 2018-06-10 7 2 56 63 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.279 The effect of aerobic training and consumption of L-carnitine supplements on Gen expression of HMG-CoA reductase and LDL receptor in the liver of male Wistar rats Injected by Boldenone http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/291 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training and consumption of L-carnitine supplements on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL receptor in the liver of male Wistar rats toxicated by Boldenone. 30 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks (weight 195±7.94g) were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, boldenone (5mg/kg), L-carnitine, aerobic training- L-carnitine.The endurance moderate intensity training program (55-50% of maximal oxygen consumption) performed for 6 weeks and 5 times a week. Injection once a week, on an appointed day, and in the quadriceps and hamstring was conducted in depth. After anesthesia, autopsy was performed and the testes Isolated. The HMG-CoA reductase and LDL receptor expression in the samples was measured by Real Time PCR and the quantification of gene expression levels using the formula 2-ΔΔct were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe at the significant level P&lt;0. 05.&nbsp; The results showed that aerobic training and supplementation with L-carnitine was significant effect on HMG CoA reductase and LDL-R in the liver of male Wistar rats toxicated by boldenone (P=0/000). The results showed that the expression of HMG-CoA reductase changes in the liver of male Wistar rats in Group training - L-carnitine significantly lower than the control group (P=0/000). Changes in the expression of LDL-R in groups training - L-carnitine and L-carnitine increased significantly compared to control group (P=0/000). According to the findings, it seems to supplementation with L-carnitine with regular aerobic training modulating the biosynthesis of cholesterol in liver tissue.</p> Behnam Bagherzadeh Rahmani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 7 2 64 75 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.291 Effect of Training and Gender on Plasma Irisin, Leptin, and Insulin Levels http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/219 <p><sup>The objective of this study is the comparison of the irisin, leptin, and insulin hormone levels of the female and male elite taekwondo athletes and non-athletes. Elite taekwondo athletes (7 males, 6 females) and university students (8 males, 6 females) between the ages of 16 and 20 who do not do exercise regularly and who are moderately active have taken part in the study. In the beginning of the study, the body compositions of the participants were determined and their plasma irisin, leptin, and insulin hormone analyses were determined by means of the Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) method receiving their blood samples at 8:00 a.m. after a night of staying hungry. It was found that no impact of training and gender on the irisin and insulin hormone levels had appeared jointly or separately (p&gt;0,05) while they affected the leptin levels significantly (p&lt;0.05). The leptin levels in females in both athletes and non-athletes were determined to be higher than males to significant extent and the leptin levels of both female and male athletes were significantly lower than non-athletes. As a result, it can be said that regular exercise and gender do not affect the levels of irisin and insulin hormones but they affect the leptin level significantly.</sup></p> Şükran Arıkan Serkan Revan Şükrü Serdar Balcı Metin Şahin Behiç Serpek ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-08 2018-06-08 7 2 1 8 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.219 Development of the ability to differentiate the parameters of football players' movements taking into account their typology http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/268 <p><sup>The purpose of this article - to receive and generalize the data obtained in a new research namely change of indicators of ability to differentiation of parameters of movements of the young football players having different typology of nervous system.</sup></p> <p><sup>The leading method of studying this problem is a pedagogical experiment, as well as a theoretical analysis of methodological literature and the use of methods of mathematical statistics.</sup></p> <p><sup>The result is an improvement in the indices of the ability to kinesthetic differentiation of the parameters of soccer player movements of 12-13 years, after applying an experimental differentiated methodic based on the typology of the nervous system.</sup></p> <p><sup>Conclusion - an article can be useful for coaches who train in football and other sports.</sup></p> <p><sup>The relevance of the topic is determined by the search for improvement of the training process for young players, which will increase the ability to kinesthetic differentiation of children and improve their results in football</sup></p> Georgiy Polevoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-08 2018-06-08 7 2 26 31 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.268 Contest coefficients of the elite judo athletes of Russia and Kyrgyzstan (less than 60 kg, 66 kg, 73 kg and 81 kg) from 2010 till 2015 http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/267 <p><strong>Study aim.</strong> The specialists note that the latest changes in the rules of judo have a negative impact on the quality of competition between the athletes representing the Russian Federation and the CIS countries. In connection with this the goal of the research was to search for the objective and informative criteria for assessing the level of preparedness of the judoists in Russia and Kyrgyzstan for conducting competitive fights. Another purpose of the research was to analyze the readiness level of the elite judo athletes from Russia and Kyrgyzstan to conduct competitive attacking fight in conditions with the significant changes of the rules of judo competitions based on the selected criteria.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The total number of the judoists – n = 176. The athletes competed in categories less than 60, 66, 73 and up to 81 kg. The time period for the research is 6 years (from 2010 to 2015). The level of the athletes’ readiness was determined by comparing the competitive coefficients (CC) of the judoists. The authors attribute to the significant CC of the number of won and lost technical actions, activity in a duel and time intervals between the attacking actions. CC values ​​were determined by the method of analyzing the competitive judo matches. For the analysis, the specialists were involved: the high-level coaches and international judges – n = 16. The number of the studied judo competition – 4032.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Comparative analysis of the CC showed that the athletes of all weight categories reliably (P &lt;0.001) reduced the time interval between attacking actions in the matches. At the same time, the number and quality of Nage-waza technical actions of the athletes of the weight categories less than 60 and 66 kg were revealed. Data CC significantly (P &lt;0.01) increased in judoka categories to 73 kg. Besides, the athletes less than 81 kg did not show significant changes in the Nage-waza quantity and quality factors. It should also be noted that the number of lost Nage-waza receptions of the athletes of categories less than 60 and 66 kg has been reduced. The authors suggested that the judoists of light weight categories formed a defensive style of conducting competitive matches on the whole. Moreover, this style is characterized by a reduction of the risk of attacking Nage-waza actions and an increase in the number of Ne-waza receptions. The most meet the requirements of the modern judo CC athletes less than 73 kg. Consequently, the judoists less than 81 kg according to the majority of the CC have not significantly improved the quality of the competition during the research.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Furthermore, in view of the new rules of the IJF for conducting an active attack training of the judo wrestlers for competitive activities should be based on the CC athletes. CC wrestlers are determined by the method of the mathematical analysis of the competitive fights of the athletes for certain time periods. Increase and decrease of data CC is an informative indicator of the level of readiness of a judoka in a certain component of the competition. However, the analysis of the CC judoists of the combined teams of Russia and Kyrgyzstan showed that the athletes of weight categories less than 60, 66 and 81 kg formed a generally defensive style of fighting. Besides, this style is aimed at keeping the gained advantage through the false activity and increasing the technique of Ne-waza. The most adapted to the modern requirements of IJF were the athletes weighing up to 73 kg.</p> Aleksander Osipov Mikhail Kudryavtsev Oleg Koptev Sergii Iermakov Valentina Bliznevskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-08 2018-06-08 7 2 32 45 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.267 Cancer Related Fatigue and Upper Limb Disabilities Cannot Improve after 6 Weeks Resistance Training with Thera-Band in Breast Cancer Survivors http://www.ijaep.com/index.php/IJAE/article/view/263 <p><strong>Aim</strong>. Breast cancer and its treatments lead to cancer related fatigue and upper limb disabilities. On the other hand, resistance training has positive benefits for breast cancer survivors. Thus, the aim of present study was to clarify the effect of resistance training with Thera – Band on CRF and upper limb disabilities in breast cancer survivors. <strong>Methods.</strong> Fifty women with breast cancer aged 29-65 were divided in to 2 groups: 1) resistance training with Thera- Band group (n=25) and 2) control group (n=25). Resistance training with Thera- Band group, after 5 minutes warm up, were performed the 9 resistance training with Thera – Band, from 8 to 12 repetitions and 2 sets in the first two weeks, 8 to 12 repetitions and 3 sets in the second two weeks and 8 to 12 repetitions and 4 sets in the third two weeks. The rest between each set was started from 90 seconds in the first week and was decreased to 45 seconds in the sixth week. Control group didn’t have any supervised or regular physical activity. Cancer related fatigue (CRF) and upper limb disabilities were surveyed by Piper Fatigue Scale and DASH questionnaire, respectively.&nbsp; Data were analyzed using by 2-way ANOVA (p≤0.05).&nbsp; <strong>Statistical Results</strong>. The findings of this study demonstrated that 6 weeks resistance training by Thera – Band has no significant effect on CRF and upper limb disabilities (p≥0.05). <strong>Conclusion</strong>. It can be concluded that exercise training with Thera- Band for 6 weeks cannot improve CRF and upper limb disabilities in breast cancer survivors. Future studies with large sample size and long period of intervention is suggested.</p> Reza Nouri Klaus Michaeil Braumann Bahareh Mahmoudieh ChamPiri Jan Schröder Mahdieh Akochakian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-17 2018-06-17 7 2 76 84 10.22631/ijaep.v7i2.263